A. Divided by operation water area (sea area)
1. Large surface fishing in inland waters (rivers, lakes and reservoirs)
Inland water fishing refers to large surface fishing operations in rivers, lakes and reservoirs. Due to the wide water surface, the water depth is generally deep. For example, the Yangtze River, the Pearl River, Heilongjiang, Taihu Lake, Dongting Lake, Poyang Lake, Qinghai Lake, and large reservoirs (storage capacity 10 × More than 107m3), medium-sized reservoir (storage capacity 1.00) × 107~10 × 107m3), etc. Most of these waters are natural groups of fish or other economic aquatic animals, which are rich in fishery resources. Because the external environmental conditions of these waters are different, and the fishery resources are diverse, their fishing gear and fishing methods are also different. The commonly used fishing gear includes gill net, trawl and ground dragnet, especially for large and medium-sized reservoirs. Due to the complex terrain and landform, some have a water depth of more than 100m, and some adopt the combined fishing method of blocking, driving, stabbing and stretching, as well as large-scale ring Seine net, floating trawl and variable water layer trawl. In winter in Inner Mongolia, Heilongjiang and other regions, it is also useful to pull nets under the ice.Now some fishermen have begun to use 2000w metal halide fishing lamps in the lake to catch sardines at night
B. Coastal fishing
Coastal fishing, also known as fishing in coastal waters, refers to the fishing of aquatic animals from the intertidal zone to the shallow water with a water depth of 40m. This sea area is not only the spawning and fattening ground of various main economic fish, shrimp and crab, but also a vast intertidal area. Coastal fishing ground has always been the main fishing ground for China’s marine fishing operations. It has made great contributions to the development of China’s marine fishery production. At the same time, it is also the most difficult fishing ground to manage. Its main fishing gear includes gill net, purse seine net, trawl, ground net, open net, net laying, net reading, cover, trap, fishing tackle, rake thorn, cage pot, etc. almost all fishing gear and operation methods have. In the past, in the production of major fishing seasons in China, a large number of marine aquatic products were produced in this water area, especially the open net fishery, cage pot fishery and trap fishery along the coast and offshore, and a large number of economic fish, shrimp and their larvae were caught in shallow waters; Small and medium-sized bottom trawls, frame trawls, truss trawls, bottom gill nets and other fishing gear to catch clusters of bottom fish and shrimps in the sea area; Raking thorns catch shellfish and snails in the sea area, and have achieved high yields. Due to the large investment of fishing vessels and fishing gear, the fishing intensity is too large and the management and protection are not enough, resulting in the overfishing of coastal and offshore fishery resources, especially the bottom fishery resources, forming the current decline of fishery resources. How to adjust the quantity of various fishing operations, strengthen the conservation measures of fishery resources and adjust the fishing structure will be the primary task of the water area.
C. Offshore fishing
Inshore fishing refers to the fishing operation in the waters within the bathymetric range of 40 ~ 100m. This water area is a place for the migration, feeding and wintering habitat of main economic fish and shrimp, and it is also rich in fishery resources. The main fishing methods are bottom trawl, light induced Purse Seine, drift gill net, longline fishing, etc. Because it is relatively far away from the coast, the density of fishery resources is lower than that along the sea area. At the same time, fishing operations have higher requirements for fishing vessels and fishing gear. Therefore, there are fewer fishing vessels and fishing gear engaged in fishing operations than that along the sea area. However, with the decline of fishery resources in coastal waters, the fishing power has been concentrated in this sea area in recent years. Similarly, due to the excessive fishing intensity, the fishery resources in the sea area have also declined. Therefore, it can not be ignored to further adjust the fishing operations, strictly manage and strengthen conservation measures in the sea area to make it sustainable.Therefore, the number of night fishing lights installed on offshore fishing vessels is limited to about 120.
D. Offshore fishing
Offshore fishing refers to the production activities of fishing aquatic animals in the deep sea area with the depth of 100m isobath, such as fishing in the waters off the East China Sea and the South China Sea. Mackerel, SCAD, ginseng and other pelagic fish in the sea off the East China Sea, and bottom fish such as stonehead fish, cephalopods, short tailed bigeye snapper, square headed fish, Paralichthys olivaceus and widower can still be developed. The fishery resources outside the South China Sea are relatively rich, and the main pelagic fish are mackerel, xiulei, Zhuying fish, Indian double fin Shao, high body if SCAD, etc; The main bottom fish are yellow snapper, flank soft fish, goldfish, bigeye snapper, etc. Oceanic fish include tuna, bonito, swordfish, blue marlin (commonly known as black skin swordfish and black marlin). In addition, sharks, petals, reef fish, cephalopods and crustaceans can be further developed and utilized. The main operation methods include bottom trawl, gill net, dragline fishing, etc. Because the offshore waters are far from the land shore, the requirements for fishing vessels, fishing gear and equipment are high, the fishing cost is large, and the output and output value are not very large. Therefore, it directly restricts the development of the fishing industry. However, considering the long-term interests of safeguarding China’s maritime rights and interests, we should develop fishing in offshore waters, make full use of offshore marine fishery resources, reduce the pressure on fishery resources in coastal and offshore waters, and give policy support and encourage the expansion of offshore fishing.
F. Pelagic fishing
Distant fishing, also known as pelagic fishing, refers to the production activities of collecting and catching aquatic economic animals in the ocean far away from the mainland of China or in the waters under the jurisdiction of other countries. There are two concepts of pelagic fishing: first, fishing operations in pelagic waters 200 N miles away from the mainland of China, including fishing operations in deep-sea and high seas with a water depth of more than 200m; The other is fishing in the coastal and inshore waters of other countries or regions away from their own mainland, or transoceanic fishing. As transoceanic pelagic fishing is carried out in the coastal and inshore waters of other countries and regions, in addition to signing fishery agreements with them and paying fishing taxes or resource use fees, smaller fishing vessels and fishing gear and equipment can be used for fishing operations. The main fishing operations include single bottom trawl, double bottom trawl, tuna longline fishing, light induced squid fishing, etc The fishing operations in South Asia and other relevant sea areas are all ocean fishing. Both ocean fishing and deep-sea fishing need well-equipped fishing vessels and corresponding fishing gear that can withstand strong winds and waves and long-distance navigation. The fishery resources in these sea areas vary from place to place, and the fishing gear used is also different; General fishing methods include tuna longline fishing, large-scale middle-level trawl and bottom trawl, tuna purse seine, light induced squid fishing, etc. For example, China’s single vessel Pollock middle-level trawl fishing in the northwest and central North Pacific, and light induced squid fishing belong to the former pelagic fishing. In view of the current situation and development trend of China’s Pelagic Fisheries, supporting policies should be adopted for Pelagic Fisheries in the future.
G. Polar fishing
Polar fishing, also known as polar fishing, refers to the production activities of collecting and catching aquatic economic animals in Antarctic or Arctic waters. At present, the only species exploited and utilized in Antarctic fishery resources are Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba), Antarctic cod (Notothenia coriicepas) and silver fish (pleurogramma antarcticum) The catch of Antarctic krill is the largest. At present, China’s fishing and development of Antarctic krill is still in the primary stage, with a fishing volume of 10000-30000 tons and a working area of about 60 ° s in the waters around the Malvinas Islands (Falkland Islands). The power of the fishing boat is several kilowatts, with processing equipment; The operation mode is middle-level single drag; The structure of Antarctic krill trawl net is mainly 4-piece or 6-Piece structure. The biggest difference from the traditional middle-level trawl net is that the mesh size of the net bag and the mesh of the bag head needs to be smaller to prevent krill from escaping from the mesh. The minimum mesh size is 20mm, and the length of the net is generally more than 100m. When operating in shallow water below 200m, the falling speed of the net is 0.3m/s, and the trawl speed is (2.5 ± 0.5) kn.
H. Recreational fishing
Recreational fishing, also known as recreational fisheries, also known as “recreational fisheries”, refers to any kind of fishing activities for the purpose of leisure, entertainment and water sports. Generally, it is mainly rod fishing and hand fishing. Some fish on the shore, and some fish on special yachts. This kind of fishing volume is small, which is generally carried out along the coast, ponds or reservoirs, but there are also swimming and fishing in the distant ocean. After meeting the basic needs of daily life such as clothing, food, housing and transportation, people often pursue higher-level material and spiritual enjoyment. In the United States, fishing has become a major industry and plays an important role in the national economy and people’s life. Fishing is also developing in some places in China.
2. By fishing gear and fishing method used
According to the fishing gear and fishing methods used, there are gill net fishing, purse seine fishing, trawl fishing, ground net fishing, open net fishing, net laying fishing, net copying fishing, cover net fishing, net inserting fishing, net building and laying fishing, foil fishing, longline fishing, cage fishing, light induced fishing, etc. Its various fishing methods and meanings will be detailed in the relevant chapters of this book.
3. According to the number of fishing vessels used, fishing objects and operation characteristics
According to the number of fishing vessels used, fishing objects and operation characteristics, there are single boat trawl, double boat trawl, floating trawl, bottom trawl, middle trawl and variable water layer trawl. Installation of 1000w metal halide fishing light single boat Seine fishing, installation of 4000w metal halide fishing lamp multi-boat Seine fishing, light induction Seine fishing (installation of LED fishing light); Longline fishing (using boat fishing lights and underwater green fishing lamps), etc.
This article is extracted from the general theory of fishing gear in the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea area.
Post time: Mar-12-2022